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Quantum computational advantage using photons

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Citeas:H.-S.Zhongetal.,Science10.1126/science.abe8770(2020).REPORTSFirstrelease:3December2020www.sciencemag.org(Pagenumbersnotfinalattimeoffirstrelease)1TheExtendedChurch-TuringThesisisafoundationaltenetincomputerscience,whichstatesthataprobabilisticTuringmachinecanefficientlysimulateanyprocessonarealisticphysicaldevice(1).Inthe1980s,RichardFeynmanobservedthatmany-bodyquantumproblemsseemeddifficultforclassicalcomputersduetotheexponentiallygrowingsizeofthequantumstateHilbertspace.Heproposedthataquan-tumcomputerwouldbeanaturalsolution.Anumberofquantumalgorithmshavesincebeende-visedtoefficientlysolveproblemsbelievedtobeclassicallyhard,suchasShor’sfactoringalgorithm(2).Buildingafault-tolerantquantumcomputertorunShor’salgorithm,however,stillrequireslong-termefforts.Quantumsamplingalgorithms(3–6),basedonplausiblecomputationalcom-plexityarguments,wereproposedfornear-termdemonstra-tionsofquantumcomputationalspeedupinsolvingcertainwell-definedtaskscomparedtocurrentsupercomputers.Ifthespeedupappearsoverwhelmingsuchthatnoclassicalcomputercanperformthesametaskinareasonableamountoftimeandisunlikelyoverturnedbyclassicalalgo-rithmicorhardwareimprovements,itwascalledquantumcomputationaladvantageorquantumsupremacy(7,8).Here,weusethefirstterm.Averyrecentexperimentona53-qubitprocessorhasgeneratedamillionnoisy(~0.2%fidelity)samplesin200s(8),whileasupercomputerwouldtake10,000years.Itwassoonarguedthattheclassicalalgorithmcanbeimprovedtocostonlyafewdaystocomputeallthe253quantumproba-bilityamplitud

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